Physics-Based Hazard Assessment for Critical Structures Near Large Earthquake Sources


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Hutchings L., Mert A., Fahjan Y., Novikova T., Golara A., Miah M., ...More

1st Workshop on Best Practices in Physics-Based Fault Rupture Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment of Nuclear Installations (BestPSHANI), Vienna, Austria, 18 - 20 November 2015, pp.311-338 identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00024-017-1572-4
  • City: Vienna
  • Country: Austria
  • Page Numbers: pp.311-338
  • Keywords: PSHA, ergodic assumption, physics based, earthquake hazard, empirical Green's functions, EMPIRICAL GREEN-FUNCTIONS, GROUND-MOTION PREDICTION, TIME HISTORIES, SIMULATION, INVERSION, MODELS, SITE, AFTERSHOCKS, VALIDATION, CALIFORNIA
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

We argue that for critical structures near large earthquake sources: (1) the ergodic assumption, recent history, and simplified descriptions of the hazard are not appropriate to rely on for earthquake ground motion prediction and can lead to a mis-estimation of the hazard and risk to structures; (2) a physics-based approach can address these issues; (3) a physics-based source model must be provided to generate realistic phasing effects from finite rupture and model near-source ground motion correctly; (4) wave propagations and site response should be site specific; (5) a much wider search of possible sources of ground motion can be achieved computationally with a physics-based approach; (6) unless one utilizes a physics-based approach, the hazard and risk to structures has unknown uncertainties; (7) uncertainties can be reduced with a physics-based approach, but not with an ergodic approach; (8) computational power and computer codes have advanced to the point that risk to structures can be calculated directly from source and site-specific ground motions. Spanning the variability of potential ground motion in a predictive situation is especially difficult for near-source areas, but that is the distance at which the hazard is the greatest. The basis of a "physical-based'' approach is ground-motion syntheses derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. This is an overview paper and results from previous studies are used to make the case for these conclusions. Our premise is that 50 years of strong motion records is insufficient to capture all possible ranges of site and propagation path conditions, rupture processes, and spatial geometric relationships between source and site. Predicting future earthquake scenarios is necessary; models that have little or no physical basis but have been tested and adjusted to fit available observations can only "predict'' what happened in the past, which should be considered description as opposed to prediction. We have developed a methodology for synthesizing physics-based broad-band ground motion that incorporates the effects of realistic earthquake rupture along specific faults and the actual geology between the source and site.