The present study investigated the earthquake behavior of R/C structures considering the vertical earthquake motion with the help of a comparative study. For this aim, the linear time-history analyses of a high-rise R/C structure designed according to TSC-2007 requirements were conducted including and excluding the vertical earthquake motion. Earthquake records used in the analyses were selected based on the ratio of vertical peak acceleration to horizontal peak acceleration (V/H). The frequency-domain analyses of the earthquake records were also performed to compare the dominant frequency of the records with that of the structure. Based on the results obtained from the time-history analyses under the earthquake loading with (H+V) and without the vertical earthquake motion (H), the value of the overturning moment and the top-story vertical displacement were found to relatively increase when considering the vertical earthquake motion. The base shear force was also affected by this motion; however, its increase was lower compared to the overturning moment and the top-story vertical displacement. The other two parameters, the top-story lateral displacement and the top-story rotation angle, barely changed under H and H+V loading cases. Modal damping ratios and their variations in horizontal and vertical directions were also estimated using response acceleration records. No significant change in the horizontal damping ratio was observed whereas the vertical modal damping ratio noticeably increased under H+V loading. The results obtained from this study indicate that the desired structural earthquake performance cannot be provided under H+V loading due to the excessive increase in the overturning moment, and that the vertical damping ratio should be estimated considering the vertical earthquake motion.