Estimation of measured evapotranspiration using data-driven methods with limited meteorological variables

Creative Commons License

Başakın E. E., Ekmekcioğlu Ö., Özger M., Altınbaş N., Şaylan L.

ITALIAN JOURNAL OF AGROMETEOROLOGY-RIVISTA ITALIANA DI AGROMETEOROLOGIA, vol.2021, no.1, pp.63-80, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2021 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.36253/ijam-1055
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.63-80
  • Keywords: bowen ratio energy balance, artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, winter wheat, ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORKS, WATER, SURFACE, SOIL, EVAPORATION, RATIO
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Determination of surface energy balance depends on the energy exchange between land and atmosphere. Thus, crop, soil and meteorological factors are crucial, particularly in agricultural fields. Evapotranspiration is derived from latent heat component of surface energy balance and is a key factor to clarify the energy transfer mechanism. Development of the methods and technologies for the aim of determining and measuring of evapotranspiration have been one of the main focus points for researchers. However, the direct measurement systems are not common because of economic reasons. This situation causes that different methods are used to estimate evapotranspiration, particularly in locations where no measurements are made. Thus, in this study, non-linear techniques were applied to make accurate estimations of evapotranspiration over the winter wheat canopy located in the field of Ataturk Soil Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Institute Directorate, Kirklareli, Turkey. This is the first attempt in the literature which consist of the comparison of different machine learning methods in the evapotranspiration values obtained by the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance system. In order to accomplish this aim, support-vector machine, Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and Artificial neural network models have been evaluated for different input combinations. The results revealed that even with only global solar radiation data taken as an input, a high prediction accuracy can be achieved. These results are particularly advantageous in cases where the measurement of meteorological variables is limited. With the results of this study, progress can be made in the efficient use and management of water resources based on the input parameters of evapotranspiration especially for regions with limited data.