Combined Neutrase-Alcalase Protein Hydrolysates from Hazelnut Meal, a Potential Functional Food Ingredient

Ceylan F. D., Adrar N., Günal-Köroǧlu D., Gültekin Subaşl B., Çapanoğlu Güven E.

ACS Omega, vol.8, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.2c07157
  • Journal Name: ACS Omega
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Consumers' interest in functional foods has significantly increased in the past few years. Hazelnut meal, the main valuable byproduct of the hazelnut oil industry, is a rich source of proteins and bioactive peptides and thus has great potential to become a valuable functional ingredient. In this study, hazelnut protein hydrolysates obtained by a single or combined hydrolysis by Alcalase and Neutrase were mainly characterized for their physicochemical properties (SDS-PAGE, particle size distribution, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, molecular weight distribution, etc.) and potential antiobesity effect (Free fatty acid (FFA) release inhibition), antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS methods), and emulsifying properties. The impact of a microfluidization pretreatment was also investigated. The combination of Alcalase with Neutrase permitted the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH; 15.57 ± 0.0%) of hazelnut protein isolate, which resulted in hydrolysates with the highest amount of low-molecular-weight peptides, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and SDS-PAGE. There was a positive correlation between the DH and the inhibition of FFA release by pancreatic lipase (PL), with a significant positive effect of microfluidization when followed by Alcalase hydrolysis. Microfluidization enhanced the emulsifying activity index (EAI) of protein isolates and hydrolysates. Low hydrolysis by Neutrase had the best effect on the EAI (84.32 ± 1.43 (NH) and 88.04 ± 2.22 m2/g (MFNH)), while a negative correlation between the emulsifying stability index (ESI) and the DH was observed. Again, the combined Alcalase-Neutrase hydrolysates displayed the highest radical scavenging activities (96.63 ± 1.06% DPPH and 98.31 ± 0.46% ABTS). FTIR results showed that the application of microfluidization caused the unfolding of the protein structure. The individual or combined application of the Alcalase and Neutrase enzymes caused a switch from the β-sheet organization of the proteins to α-helix structures. In conclusion, hazelnut meal may be a good source of bioactive and functional peptides. The control of its enzymatic hydrolysis, together with an appropriate pretreatment such as microfluidization, may be crucial to achieve the best suitable activity.