In recent years, regions have grown in importance as locations that define the competitiveness of nations and firms. This aim of this study was to evaluate the competitiveness of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) 2 regions in Turkey according to some of the influential components and variables. Several theoretical and empirical studies have used a variety of characteristics. Principal component analysis was applied to determine the most significant elements affecting regional competitiveness in Turkey's NUTS 2 regions: economic base and human capital. A strong economic base of private capital with an innovative structure linked to increased human capital and labor factors is necessary to be competitive. There are significant differences between regions; generally, the greatest potential for competitiveness is in the western regions of Turkey. To increase competitiveness, rational strategies aimed at creating innovative environments for regions to attract capital, both human and private, and to prioritize the local characteristics of regions should be implemented across the whole country.