Today's wireless networks allocate radio resources to users based on the orthogonal multiple access (OMA) principle. However, as the number of users increases, OMA based approaches may not meet the stringent emerging requirements including very high spectral efficiency, very low latency, and massive device connectivity. Nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) principle emerges as a solution to improve the spectral efficiency while allowing some degree of multiple access interference at receivers. In this tutorial style paper, we target providing a unified model for NOMA, including uplink and downlink transmissions, along with the extensions to multiple input multiple output and cooperative communication scenarios. Through numerical examples, we compare the performances of OMA and NOMA networks. Implementation aspects and open issues are also detailed.