Diabetes is a type of disease that threatens human health, which can be diagnosed based on the level of glucose in the blood. Recently, various MOF-based materials have been developed as efficient electrochemical glucose sensors because of their tunable pore channels, large specific surface area well dispersed metallic active sites, etc. In this review, the significance of glucose detection and the advantages of MOF-based materials for this application are primarily discussed. Then, the application of MOF-based materials can be categorized into two types of glucose sensors: enzymatic biosensors and non-enzymatic sensors. Finally, insights into the current research challenges and future breakthrough possibilities regarding electrochemical glucose sensors are considered.