Fire emergency response systems information requirements' data model for situational awareness of responders: A goal-directed task analysis

Rezaeifam S., Ergen E., Günaydın H. M.

JOURNAL OF BUILDING ENGINEERING, vol.63, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 63
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jobe.2022.105531
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Fire emergency responder, Situational awareness, Data model, Information requirements, BIM, IoT, BIM, PREVENTION, COMPUTER, SAFETY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Building fire emergencies are considered a high-risk domain for significant loss of lives and prop-erty. Accurate information and Situational Awareness (SA) enable fire responders to make timely decisions and perform safe operations during fire emergencies. Although information technolo-gies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have the po-tential to supply information and support the decision-making processes of fire emergency re-sponse, the provided data are not necessarily the needed information at the operation level. This paper uses Goal-Directed Task Analysis (GDTA) to define fire emergency responders' SA Goals, Decisions, and Information (GDI) requirements. The semi-structured scenario-based interviews were conducted with ten Municipal fire department experts to determine GDI requirements. Based on the identified requirements, the SA-oriented use-case and sequence data models for de-cision-support Fire Emergency Information Systems (FERS) were developed to reveal the dy-namic aspect of the FERS and to describe how the system should behave to enhance the SA of re-sponders. The use-case data model visualizes the possible interactions of fire responders with the system, and the sequence data models visualize the order of the interactions and the call/return messages between the lifelines of the FERS. The validation of the GDI requirements and data models were performed by obtaining experts' feedback, and based on the feedback; the models were finalized. The SA GDI requirements and data models can eventually be helpful for FERS's user-friendly graphical interface design to support responders with higher SA. The FERS, which has comprehension and projection levels of information, will enhance effective decision-making, especially in cases where the skills and training of the firefighters are not sufficient to direct the emergency response.