Dynamic adsorption behavior of benzene, toluene, and xylene VOCs in single- and multi-component systems by activated carbon derived from defatted black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) biowaste

Batur E., Kutluay S.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, vol.10, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jece.2022.107565
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Activated carbon, Dynamic competitive adsorption, Multi-component systems, Defatted black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) biowaste, Volatile organic compounds, RESPONSE-SURFACE METHODOLOGY, VOLATILE ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS, COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION, CHEMICAL ACTIVATION, PHASE ADSORPTION, OPTIMIZATION, REMOVAL, EQUILIBRIUM, VAPOR, WATER
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In the current study, activated carbon (AC) was produced from defatted black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) biowaste (DBCB) with ZnCl2 activation by means of the response surface methodology. The optimum process conditions for the production of DBCB-AC with a high iodine number of 1055.02 mg/g were predicted as an activation time of 57 min, activation temperature of 550 degrees C, and impregnation ratio of 105%. The surface and textural properties of the optimal DBCB-AC were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and BET analysis techniques. The DBCB-AC exhibited a highly porous structure with a specific surface area of 1213.32 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.89 cm(3)/g, and micropore surface area of 787.65 m(2)/g. Exploring the comparative and competitive adsorption behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is of both practical and scientific interest. Therefore, the competitive adsorption of multi-component benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) vapors by the DBCB-AC was elucidated. In the single-component system, the adsorption capacities of the BTX vapors at inlet concentrations of 20 mg/L were determined as 495, 580, and 674 mg/g, respectively. In contrast, in the binary-component system, the adsorption capacity of the B-vapor at 20 mg/L B + 10 mg/L T and 20 mg/L B + 10 mg/L X decreased by approximately 42% and 56%, respectively. Similarly, the adsorption capacity of the T-vapor at 20 mg/L T + 10 mg/L X decreased by approximately 47%. In the ternary-component system, the adsorption capacity of the X-vapor remained consistent. The adsorption mechanism of the BTX was explained by adsorption kinetic and isotherm models. The reuse efficiency of the DBCB-AC for the BTX was assessed through five cycles of adsorption-desorption tests and was found to be 89.45%, 88.02%, and 87.25%, respectively. The DBCB-AC, which had high-performance in terms of both reuse efficiency and adsorption capacity, can be recommended as a promising adsorbent for removal of VOC pollutants.