Environmental Research, vol.226, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Water quality is deteriorating continuously as increasing levels of toxic inorganic and organic contaminants mostly discharging into the aquatic environment. Removal of such pollutants from the water system is an emerging research area. During the past few years use of biodegradable and biocompatible natural additives has attracted considerable attention to alleviate pollutants from wastewater. The chitosan and its composites emerged as a promising adsorbents due to their low price, abundance, amino, and hydroxyl groups, as well as their potential to remove various toxins from wastewater. However, a few challenges associated with its practical use include lack of selectivity, low mechanical strength, and solubility in acidic medium. Therefore, several approaches for modification have been explored to improve the physicochemical properties of chitosan for wastewater treatment. Chitosan nanocomposites found effective for the removal of metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, microplastics from the wastewaters. Nanoparticle doped with chitosan in the form of nano-biocomposites has recently gained much attention and proven a successful tool for water purification. Hence, applying chitosan-based adsorbents with numerous modifications is a cutting-edge approach to eliminating toxic pollutants from aquatic systems with the global aim of making potable water available worldwide. This review presents an overview of distinct materials and methods for developing novel chitosan-based nanocomposites for wastewater treatment.