Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) in Drinking Water Distribution Systems of Istanbul City, Turkey


UYAK V., Soylu S., TOPAL T., KARAPINAR N., ÖZDEMİR K., Ozaydin S., ...More

ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS, vol.15, no.2, pp.190-205, 2014 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15275922.2014.890145
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS
  • Page Numbers: pp.190-205

Abstract

This study presents the seasonal and spatial variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in 30 sampling points within three water distribution systems of Istanbul City, Turkey. The effects of surface water quality, seasonal variation, and species differences were examined. The occurrence of chlorinated THMs and HAAs levels was considerably lower in the system in which raw water is subjected to pre-ozonation versus pre-chlorination. Seasonal analysis of the data indicated that the median concentration of four THMs (THM4) was higher than nine HAAs (HAA(9)) concentrations in all three distribution systems sampling points. For all distribution systems monitored, the highest median THM4 and HAA(9) concentrations were observed in the spring and summer season, while the lowest concentrations of these disinfection byproduct (DBP) compounds were obtained in the fall and winter period. Due to the higher level of bromide in supplying waters of these two systems, moderate levels of brominated DBP species have been observed in the Kagithane and Buyukcekmece distribution systems districts. In fact, Spearman partial correlations (Spearman rank correlation coefficients [rs]) tend to be higher among analogues in terms of number and types of substituent, especially TCAA with TCM (rs 0.91), and DBAA with DBCM (rs 0.90). In contrast, the hydraulic (residence time and flow rate) and chemical mechanisms (hydrolysis, volatilization, and adsorption) affect the fate and transport of DBPs in distribution systems. Seasonal and spatial variations of DBPs presented in this study have important implications on regulatory issues and from an epidemiological point of view.