Re-Entrant Conformation Transition in Hydrogels

Okay O.

GELS, vol.7, no.3, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/gels7030098
  • Journal Name: GELS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: re-entrant volume phase transition, cosolvency, stimuli responsive hydrogels, hydrophobically modified hydrogels, polymer-solvent interactions
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Hydrogels are attractive materials not only for their tremendous applications but also for theoretical studies as they provide macroscopic monitoring of the conformation change of polymer chains. The pioneering theoretical work of Dusek predicting the discontinuous volume phase transition in gels followed by the experimental observation of Tanaka opened up a new area, called smart hydrogels, in the gel science. Many ionic hydrogels exhibit a discontinuous volume phase transition due to the change of the polymer-solvent interaction parameter chi depending on the external stimuli such as temperature, pH, composition of the solvent, etc. The observation of a discontinuous volume phase transition in nonionic hydrogels or organogels is still a challenging task as it requires a polymer-solvent system with a strong polymer concentration dependent chi parameter. Such an observation may open up the use of organogels as smart and hydrophobic soft materials. The re-entrant phenomenon first observed by Tanaka is another characteristic of stimuli responsive hydrogels in which they are frustrated between the swollen and collapsed states in a given solvent mixture. Thus, the hydrogel first collapses and then reswells if an environmental parameter is continuously increased. The re-entrant phenomenon of hydrogels in water-cosolvent mixtures is due to the competitive hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions leading to flow-in and flow-out of the cosolvent molecules through the hydrogel moving boundary as the composition of the solvent mixture is varied. The experimental results reviewed here show that a re-entrant conformation transition in hydrogels requires a hydrophobically modified hydrophilic network, and a moderate hydrogen-bonding cosolvent having competitive attractions with water and polymer. The re-entrant phenomenon may widen the applications of the hydrogels in mechanochemical transducers, switches, memories, and sensors.