The bond of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars embedded in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is experimentally examined. This state-of-the-art concrete is mixed with steel fibers (2.3% by volume) and silica fume in addition to high-early strength cement, water, silica sand, and a high-range water reducer. Specifically, silica fume to cement ratios range from 20% to 40%. The topography of the reinforcing bars, measured in accordance with a standard method specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), indicates that GFRP has fluctuating elevations, while BFRP possesses a flat surface. Push-out bond tests characterize the failure modes of the UHPC-GFRP and -BFRP interfaces as well as their energy dissipation values. The amount of silica fume affects the load-bearing capacity of the interface, irrespective of bar type. Microscopic analysis exhibits residual resins, after the failure of the interface, and clarifies the influence of steel fibers on the bond between the concrete substrate and reinforcement.