Salvia is one of the largest genera of the family Lamiaceae. It is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions all over the world. Besides its ethnobotanical importance, some species such as S. officinalls (sage, common sage), S. sclarea (clary sage), S. lavandulifolia (Spanish sage), S. miltiorrhiza (danshen), and S. hispanica (chia) are traded on the market as a food and because of the interest in their essential oils and/or popularity in traditional medicine. The high diversity of the Salvia genus and phytochemical richness generate great interest for discovering new biological active compounds, including those found in essential oils. Salvia plant essential oils exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological activities and represent great interest for food preservation as potential natural products. Thus, this review describes the phytochemical composition of essential oils from different Salvia spp. according to the geographic regions, plant organ, and phenological stage. Moreover, the cultivation and growing conditions of Salvia plants have been also revised. Finally, the interest on Salvia plants for food and pharmaceutical applications has been covered, through reporting their biological properties, including as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-alzheimer, hypotensive, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-cancer, and skin curative agents.