Comprehensive Analysis of Extreme Meteorological Conditions for the Safety and Reliability of Floating Photovoltaic Systems: A Case on the Mediterranean Coast

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Korkmaz M. S., Toker E., Şahin A. D.

Sustainability (Switzerland), vol.15, no.19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su151914077
  • Journal Name: Sustainability (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: extreme weather, floating photovoltaics, Mediterranean, meteorological analysis, wave characteristics, WRF
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In recent decades, renewable energy projects have required careful consideration of environmental factors. This study investigates the impact of a mid-latitude cyclone on planned floating photovoltaic (FPV) facilities in Antalya, Turkey, focusing on the severe thunderstorm events that brought heavy rainfall and tornadoes in January 2019. Synoptic analysis reveals a deep cut-off low over the Genoa Gulf, causing trough formation and vertical cloud development due to moisture convergence. Warm air advection pushed an unstable thunderstorm system northward along an occluded front. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, sensitivity analysis is conducted, highlighting regional variations in wind speeds. The model outputs are compared with observations, identifying the best configuration using statistical indicators. The Mellor–Yamada–Janjic (MYJ) planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the Milbrandt microphysics scheme produced better results in the western and central regions. The model output of the best configurations is used to calculate regional wave characteristics with a modified Shore Protection Manual (SPM) method for water reservoirs. These findings offer invaluable insights for future FPV projects, providing a better understanding of how to address challenges posed by extreme weather conditions and how to enhance system safety and reliability.