Rapid surface uplift and crustal flow in the Central Andes (southern Peru) controlled by lithospheric drip dynamics

Göğüş O. H., Sundell K., Uluocak E. S., Saylor J., Cetiner U.

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol.12, no.1, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/s41598-022-08629-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The high flux magmatism, crustal shortening/extension and plateau formation in Cordilleran orogenic systems have been explained by removal of lithosphere (lower crust and the sub-arc mantle lithosphere) that develops beneath the magmatic arc and hinterland regions. However, the primary role of this process driving surface uplift, and crustal deformation is not well understood. Here, reconciling geodynamic model predictions with lithospheric structure and paleoelevation estimates, we suggest that viscous drip-type lithospheric removal from beneath the Central (Peruvian) Andes can explain several tectonic features: (1) "double humped" shaped/axisymmetric topographic profile and rapid surface rise (up to 1.2 km in similar to 4.31 Myrs); (2) thicker crust associated with the lower surface elevation of the Altiplano plateau (Lake Titicaca region) (negative residual topography) and higher topography and thinner crust of Western and Eastern Cordilleras (positive residual topography); and (3) faster wave speed (colder)/sub-Moho anomaly underlying the Altiplano, surrounded by slower speed anomalies on both western arc-forearc areas and parts of the eastern Cordillera and Sub-Andes. Our results emphasize the important role of lithospheric drip and associated mantle dynamics in the transient evolution of Andean orogeny controlling surface uplift and crustal flow and thickening.