Participation in college education is lower for women than men in many developing countries including Turkey. This paper investigates the causes of this fact by using the student selection and placement system (OSYS) data for the year 2005. We show that seven factors are effective in unequal participation in college education. We point out the issues that policies should focus on in order to increase the participation of women in college education. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.