This study investigates the mode-II delamination performance of filament-wound unidirectional composites with different types of epoxies as their matrix phase under room and cryogenic temperatures. A typical vacuum infusion resin, an aerospace-grade cold-curing resin and crack-resistant toughened resin systems were wet-wound with 12K carbon fiber tows to manufacture the composite samples. Test samples with a (0)16 ply sequence were tested according to ASTM D7905-19. The tested samples were investigated via microscopic analysis to assess the failure mechanisms associated with varying the matrix material and temperature. ENF tests at room temperature were found to be susceptible to the inherent variance in the fiber architectures along with resin-viscosity-driven fiber wetting. Cryogenic conditions induce a shift in the mode-II delamination behavior from a rather complex failure mechanism to a consistent fiber/matrix debonding mode with diminishing GIIc values except for the toughened resin system. The provided comprehensive fractographic analysis enables an understanding of the various causes of fracture, which determines the laminate performance. The combined evaluation of the distinctive damage modes reported in this study provides guidance on the conventional wet-winding process, which still remains a volumetrically dominant and viable option for cryogenic applications, particularly for vessels with limited operational durations like sounding rockets.