The protective effects of an antioxidant combination in kidney injury induced by the injection of D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) were examined in the present study. Sprague Dawley female rats were used and divided into four groups as follows: (1) animals injected physiological saline solution, intraperitoneally, (2) animals treated with the combination of ascorbic acid (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), beta-carotene (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), alpha-tocopherol (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and sodium selenate (0.2 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for three days orally, (3) rats injected D-GaIN (500 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally as a single dose, and (4) animals treated with the antioxidant combination for three days, then injected D-GaIN. The tissue and blood samples of animals were collected for morphological and biochemical evaluations. Histopathological injury in kidney tissues was observed together with a significant increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and serum creatinine and urea levels, and a significant decrease in glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity in D-GAIN injected rats. However, a decrease in the degenerative changes was detected in the kidney tissue of D-GaIN+antioxidant group, and biochemical results showed reversed effects. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to conclude that the treatment of the antioxidant combination has a protective effect on D-GaIN-induced kidney injury of rats. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.