Nanoparticle properties are correlated to their size, size distribution, and shape; it is essential to accurately measure these features in the field of nanoscience. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized with the ultrasonic-spray-pyrolysis (USP) method from a water solution of silver nitrate. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to reveal their size and size distribution. A search algorithm based on an image-processing technique to obtain particle size and particle-size distribution from SEM micrographs is proposed. In order to obtain more quantitative information and data with respect to the morphology of particles synthesized under different process parameters, SEM micrographs with a nonhomogeneous background contrast were examined via image-processing techniques in MATLAB. Due to the inhomogeneous contrast of SEM micrographs, defining an overall threshold value was insufficient in the detection of whole nanoparticles. Thus, subimages were directly created according to the maximum and minimum particle size specified by the user to determine local threshold values. The obtained results were automatically combined to represent both particle dimension and location in the SEM micrographs. We confirmed that the results of our DLS analysis, theoretical calculation, and image-processing technique were correlated with our expected results.