Electrochemistry of a double-decker lutetium(III) phthalocyanine in aqueous media. The first evidence for five reductions

Kadish K., NAKANISHI T., GUREK A., Ahsen V., Yilmaz I.

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, vol.105, no.40, pp.9817-9821, 2001 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 105 Issue: 40
  • Publication Date: 2001
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/jp012636y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.9817-9821
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The double-decker lutetium(IR) phthalocyanine, Lu[(RS)(4)Pc)(2), where R = C12H25, was synthesized and electrochemically characterized under several solution conditions. The neutral complex undergoes a single reversible one-electron oxidation and up to four reversible one-electron reductions in nonaqueous solutions of CH2Cl2 or benzonitrile containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP), while one oxidation and five reductions are seen in aqueous 0.5 M KCl for a gel-like cast film membrane of Lu[(RS)(4)Pc](2) in a tetraoctylphosphonium bromide (4C(8)P(+)Br(-)) matrix at a basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode. The halfwave potentials for reduction of Lu[(RS)(4)PC](2) in CH2Cl2, 0-1 M TBAP are located at E-1/2 = 0.04, -1.03, -1.36 and -1.73 V, while the single oxidation is located at E-1/2 = 0.43 V vs SCE. These potentials, when measured vs Fc/Fc(+), are negatively shifted by 0.20-0.46 V from the E-1/2 values obtained in the 0.5 M KCl solution where the electrogenerated anions of the double-decker complex are stabilized by the cations of the 4C(8)P(+)Br(-) matrix and five reductions are seen,at E-1/2 = 0.29, -0.66, -0.94, -1.22, and -1.41 V vs SCE. The fifth reduction has been theoretically predicted but had never before been observed for any double-decker lutetium(III) phthalocyanine or related complex. A cast film of Lu[(RS)(4)Pc](2) displays only one oxidation in the 0.5 M KCl solution (at E-1/2 = 0.78 V vs SCE), and no reductions at all are seen in the absence of a matrix. An almost identical oxidation potential of E-1/2 = 0.80 V is seen for oxidation of Lu[(RS)(4)PC](2) in KCl when dissolved in the cationic matrix. These half-wave potentials for oxidation in the cationic film, when measured vs Fc/Fc(+), are thus more positive by more than 0.27-0.32 V than E-1/2 values measured in CH2Cl2 or PhCN and this is consistent with a decreased degree of solvent or anion binding to {Lu[(RS)(4)Pc](2)}(+) in the 4C(8)P(+)Br(-) matrix, as compared to what is observed in solution.