Upper mantle structure beneath the Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield is investigated using non-linear tomographic inversion of relative arrival-time residuals. 52 selected teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 45 broadband stations of the Swedish National Seismological Network (SNSN) provide 1532 good quality S-wave relative arrival times. SV and SH arrival-time residuals were initially analyzed independently, providing two separate models. These reveal several consistent major features, many of which are also consistent with P-wave results. Lateral velocity variations of +/- 3-4% are observed to depths of at least 470 km. The correlation between the SH and SV models is investigated and shows a pattern of minor but significant differences down to around 150-200 km depth, below which the models are essentially similar. Direct cell by cell comparison of the model velocities reveals a similar pattern, with velocity differences between the models of up to 4%. Numerical tests show that differences in the two S-wave models can only be partially attributed to noise and limited resolution, and some features are attributed to the effect of large scale anisotropy. One of the significant and sharp discrepancies between the S models coincides with a presumed boundary between Archean and Proterozic domains, suggesting different anisotropic characteristics in the two regions. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.