Food safety is a crucial issue; all countries have struggled against pesticides for years. In this study, Polypyrrole (PPy)- and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors were investigated to detect the pesticide propamocarb (PM) in food samples. Under the experimental conditions, the proposed strategy exhibited a high selectivity of the disposable PPy-based and PAN-based sensors for the determination of propamocarb pesticide in the concentration of 1 μM with a rapid detection within 1 min at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. We demonstrated the detection of PM residues on cucumber and tomato samples with good electrochemical performances towards the real-time usability on real food samples. PAN-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor has good sensitivity, higher selectivity, and stability than PPy-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor. The prepared PAN-based non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor is a potential candidate to be used in devices which perform food safety in agricultural products.