Sizeable scientific evidence indicates the health benefits related to phenolic compounds and dietary fiber. Various phenolic compounds-rich foods or ingredients are also rich in dietary fiber, and these two health components may interrelate via noncovalent (reversible) and covalent (mostly irreversible) interactions. Notwithstanding, these interactions are responsible for the carrier effect ascribed to fiber toward the digestive system and can modulate the bioaccessibility of phenolics, thus shaping health-promoting effects in vivo. On this basis, the present review focuses on the nature, occurrence, and implications of the interactions between phenolics and food components. Covalent and noncovalent interactions are presented, their occurrence discussed, and the effect of food processing introduced. Once reaching the large intestine, fiber-bound phenolics undergo an intense transformation by the microbial community therein, encompassing reactions such as deglycosylation, dehydroxylation, alpha- and beta-oxidation, dehydrogenation, demethylation, decarboxylation, C-ring fission, and cleavage to lower molecular weight phenolics. Comparatively less information is still available on the consequences on gut microbiota. So far, the very most of the information on the ability of bound phenolics to modulate gut microbiota relates to in vitro models and single strains in culture medium. Despite offering promising information, such models provide limited information about the effect on gut microbes, and future research is deemed in this field.