COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCES, vol.38, no.1, pp.68-79, 2012 (SCI-Expanded)
In this paper, an inverse looking approach is presented to efficiently design cyclic pressure pulsing (huff 'n' puff) with N-2 and CO2, which is an effective improved oil recovery method in naturally fractured reservoirs. A numerical flow simulation model with compositional, dual-porosity formulation is constructed. The model characteristics are from the Big Andy Field, which is a depleted, naturally fractured oil reservoir in Kentucky. A set of cyclic pulsing design scenarios is created and run using this model. These scenarios and corresponding performance indicators are fed into the recurrent neural network for training. In order to capture the cyclic, time-dependent behavior of the process, recurrent neural networks are used to develop proxy models that can mimic the reservoir simulation model in an inverse looking manner. Two separate inverse looking proxy models for N-2 and CO2 injections are constructed to predict the corresponding design scenarios, given a set of desired performance characteristics. Predictive capabilities of developed proxy models are evaluated by comparing simulation outputs with neural-network outputs. It is observed that networks are able to accurately predict the design parameters, such as the injection rate and the duration of injection, soaking and production periods. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.