The study evaluated impact of sulfamethoxazole on acetate utilization kinetics and microbial community structure using respirometric analysis and pyrosequencing. A fill and draw reactor fed with acetate was sustained at a sludge age of 10 days. Acute impact was assessed by modeling of respirometric data in batch reactors started with sulfamethoxazole doses in the range of 25-200 mg/L. Fill and draw operation resumed with continuous sulfamethoxazole dosing of 50 mg/L and the chronic impact was evaluated with acclimated biomass after 20 days. Acute impact revealed higher maintenance energy requirements, activity reduction and slight substrate binding. Chronic impact resulted in retardation of substrate storage. A fraction of acetate was utilized at a much lower rate with partial biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole by the acclimated biomass. Pyrosequencing indicated that Amaricoccus sp. and an unclassified Bacteroidetes sp., possibly with the ability to co-metabolize sulfamethoxazole, dominated the community. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.