Electrochemical bonding of titanium for improved mechanical properties

Kartal G., Timur Ş., Ürgen M. K., Erdemir A.

SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol.204, no.23, pp.3935-3939, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 204 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.05.021
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3935-3939
  • Keywords: Titanium diboride, Molten salt, Electrochemical bonding, Surface treatment, PURE TITANIUM, MOLTEN-SALTS, SURFACE, WEAR, FRICTION, PERFORMANCE, COATINGS, ALLOYS, STEEL, METAL
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we introduce a rapid bonding technique that can produce very thick titanium diboride (TiB(2)) layers on titanium substrates. We also discuss the effects of process duration on boride layer thickness, chemistry and, morphology. In our experiments, the bonding of commercial purity titanium (CP-Ti) substrates was carried out in an electrochemical cell in which we used a mixture of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate as the base ingredients of molten electrolyte at 950 degrees C and at current density of 300 mA/cm(2). The titanium test pieces were attached to the cathode holder of the electrochemical cell while a graphite crucible served as the anode. Both TiB and TiB(2) phases were detected by X-ray diffraction method even after 5 min of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that the production of 4.5 mu m thick TiB(2) layers was feasible after bonding for an hour. The boride layers consisted of a homogeneous TiB(2) phase on the top and TiB whiskers toward the substrate. The micro-indentation studies indicated that the layer on top has hardness values as high as 40 GPa. The main advantages of this technique are its ability to produce very thick and hard TiB(2) quickly and to create no gaseous emissions or solid wastes during or after the treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.