ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, vol.47, pp.929-944, 2004 (SCI-Expanded)
As a preliminary to the studies conducted by the individual Working Groups, a review has been undertaken of topics which are relevant to the space-weather phenomena that can occur. The ways in general that these can influence the state of the ionosphere are discussed. The various changes in propagation parameters that arise on Earth-space and terrestrial radio paths via the ionosphere are listed. International procedures for frequency allocation and assignment are explained and the extent to which these are influenced by propagation factors is addressed. The role of mitigation techniques to improve radio-system performance is also identified.