Rotationally Adjustable Hyperthermia Applicators: A Computational Comparative Study of Circular and Linear Array Applicators

Yıldız Altıntaş G., Yilmaz T., Akduman İ.

DIAGNOSTICS, vol.12, no.11, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/diagnostics12112677
  • Journal Name: DIAGNOSTICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: antenna excitation optimization, breast cancer, particle swarm optimization, specific absorption rate focus, microwave hyperthermia, hyperthermia treatment planning, DIELECTRIC-PROPERTIES, LARGE-SCALE, BREAST, OPTIMIZATION, THERAPY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Microwave breast hyperthermia (MH) aims to increase the temperature at the tumor location with minimal change in the healthy tissue. To this end, the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the breast is optimized. The choice of the MH applicator design is important for a superior energy focus on the target. Although hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) changes for every patient, the MH applicator is required to be effective for different breast models and tumor types. The linear applicator (LA) is one of the previously proposed applicator designs with linearly arranged antennas; however, it suffers from low focusing ability in certain breast regions due to its unsymmetrical geometrical features. In this paper, we propose to radially adjust the LA to obtain alternative excitation schemes without actually changing the applicator. Antipodal Vivaldi antennas were utilized, and the antenna excitations were optimized with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of the rotated and the fixed linear applicator, between 12-antenna circular and linear applicators, and finally, between a 24-antenna circular applicator are provided. Within the 12 rotation angles and two target locations that were analyzed, the 135 degrees axially rotated linear applicator gave a 35% to 84% higher target-to-breast SAR ratio (TBRS) and a 21% to 28% higher target-to-breast temperature ratio (TBRT) than the fixed linear applicator. For the deep-seated target, the 135 degrees rotated linear applicator had an 80% higher TBRS and a 59% higher TBRT than the 12-antenna circular applicator, while the results were comparable to the 24-antenna circular applicator.