The Southeastern Anatolia Region (SEAR), the third-lowest mean annual precipitation region in Turkey, has semi-arid climate and plateau characteristics. The proximity of the region to North Africa and the Middle East dust source areas enables long-range transport of desert dust particles toward the SEAR by strong winds. Among the other dust source regions, the Arabian Peninsula has a crucial role in terms of affecting the SEAR with a high-annual frequency and high dust concentration values. We investigated the atmospheric patterns of three extreme Arabian dust episodes that affect the SEAR in this study. Dust episodes were determined using present weather (SYNOP) codes of ten stations in the SEAR during the 2014-2019 period. The source regions were found using HYSPLIT backward trajectory analysis. In this study, we benefited from synoptic maps, in situ PM10 observations, numerical simulations of the WRF-Chem model, and MODIS satellite images to analyze the extreme dust episodes. The results showed that the surface low pressure over the Persian Gulf and strong southerly winds at the 700-hPa level enabled the transport of dust particles from the surface to the mid-atmospheric levels. If the center of the upper-level ridge extended from Saudi Arabia to southern Turkey, the atmospheric blocking mechanism prevented the dispersion of dense dust particles from the SEAR to its surrounding, which caused the observation of high dust concentrations in the SEAR. In general, the WRF-Chem model outputs are in good agreement with ground-based PM10 concentrations and MODIS true-color images in terms of temporal and spatial distributions of dust concentrations.