© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.A hitherto unknown Neoproterozoic orogenic system, the Saharides, is described in North Africa. It formed during the 900-500-Ma interval. The Saharides involved large subduction accretion complexes occupying almost the entire Arabian Shield and much of Egypt and parts of the small Precambrian inliers in the Sahara including the Ahaggar mountains. These complexes consist of, at least by half, juvenile material forming some 5 million km2 new continental crust. Contrary to conventional wisdom in the areas they occupy, evolution of the Saharides involved no continental collisions until the end of their development. They formed by subduction and strike-slip stacking of arc material mostly by precollisional coastwise transport of arc fragments rifted from the Congo/ Tanzania cratonic nucleus in a manner very similar to the development of the Nipponides in east Asia, parts of the North American Cordillera and the Altaids. The Sahara appears to be underlain by a double orocline similar to the Hercynian double orocline in western Europe and northwestern Africa and not by an hypothetical "Saharan Metacraton." The method we develop here may be useful to reconstruct the structure of some of the Precambrian orogenic belts before biostratigraphy became possible.