Analysis of the Temporal Changes of Inland Ramsar Sites in Turkey Using Google Earth Engine

Dervişoğlu A.

ISPRS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEO-INFORMATION, vol.10, no.8, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijgi10080521
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Ramsar sites, wetland, GEE, remote sensing, NDWI, Landsat, Turkey, Meke Maar, Nemrut Caldera, REMOTELY-SENSED DATA, SURFACE-WATER, WETLAND, LAKE, CHINA, CLASSIFICATION, EXTRACTION, DECADES, IMAGERY, DELTA
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: No


Ramsar Convention (RC) is the first of modern intergovernmental agreement on the conscious use and conservation of natural resources. It provides a platform for contracting parties working together to develop the best available data, advice, and policy recommendations to increase awareness of the benefits of wetlands in nature and society. Turkey became a party of the RC in 1994, and in the years 1994 to 2013, 14 wetlands that reached the Ramsar criteria were recognized as Ramsar sites (RS). With this study, all inland RS in Turkey from 1985 to 2020 were examined, and changes in the water surface areas were evaluated on the GEE cloud computing platform using Landsat satellite images and the NDWI index. The closest meteorological station data to each RS were evaluated and associated with the surface area changes. The reasons for the changes in these areas, besides the meteorological effects, have been scrutinized using management plans and publications. As a result, inland wetlands decreased at different rates from 1985 to 2020, with a total loss of 31.38% and 21,571.0 ha for the spring months. Since the designation dates of RS, the total amount of water surface area reduction was 27.35%, constituting 17,758.90 ha.