The synergistic ramification of insoluble dietary fiber and associated non-extractable polyphenols on gut microbial population escorting alleviation of lifestyle diseases

Das T., Chatterjee N., Çapanoğlu Güven E., Lorenzo J. M., Das A. K., Dhar P.

Food Chemistry: X, vol.18, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 18
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fochx.2023.100697
  • Journal Name: Food Chemistry: X
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Keywords: Colonic fermentation, Food-matrix polysaccharide, Gut immune-modulation, Monomeric and polymeric polyphenols, Non-extractable polyphenols, Prebiotics
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Most of the pertinent research which aims at exploring the therapeutic effects of polyphenols usually misapprehends a large fraction of non-extractable polyphenols due to their poor aqueous-organic solvent extractability. These polymeric polyphenols (i.e., proanthocyanins, hydrolysable tannins and phenolic acids) possess a unique property to adhere to the food matrix polysaccharides and protein sowing to their structural complexity with high glycosylation, degree of polymerization, and plenty of hydroxyl groups. Surprisingly resistance to intestinal absorption does not hinder its bioactivity but accelerates its functionality manifolds due to the colonic microbial catabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby protecting the body from local and systemic inflammatory diseases. This review highlights not only the chemistry, digestion, colonic metabolism of non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) but also summarises the synergistic effect of matrix-bound NEPP exerting local as well as systemic health benefits.