Helical5AM: Five-axis parametrized helical additive manufacturing

Günpınar E., Armanfar A.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, vol.304, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 304
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2022.117565
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Path planning, Helical print-paths, Tool orientation, Accessibility
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Additive manufacturing (AM) commonly utilizes slicing techniques to create layers of a model, in which material is deposited layer-by-layer. However, slicing method directly affects the mechanical properties of the printed parts. This paper introduces a new AM technique (named as Helical5AM), which employs print-paths having helical geometry for five-axis AM. Given an object to be printed, a base (supporting helical print-paths) with a center curve and helix parameters (such as lead angle and turn direction), a complete volumetric coverage using helical print-paths is obtained. A collision-free tool orientation is then generated using a probabilistic roadmap algorithm for depositing material along the helical print-paths by avoiding tool interference with obstacles. As a proof of concept, print-paths (of models) with orientation information obtained using the proposed algorithms are simulated using a five-axis AM simulation software, and material deposition process in Helical5AM is demonstrated using a five-axis AM machine. Furthermore, compression tests are performed on the printed parts for evaluating the effects of helix lead angles of the helical print-paths on mechanical properties of the printed parts. It has been confirmed that mechanical behavior of a printed part is predictable and tunable according to the helix lead angles of the print-paths. Helical5AM can potentially empower engineers to obtain AM parts with desirable mechanical properties.