A Survey of Fault-Tolerance Algorithms for Reconfigurable Nano-Crossbar Arrays

Tunalı O., Altun M.

ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS, vol.50, no.6, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1145/3125641
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Nano-crossbar arrays have emerged as a promising and viable technology to improve computing performance of electronic circuits beyond the limits of current CMOS. Arrays offer both structural efficiency with reconfiguration and prospective capability of integration with different technologies. However, certain problems need to be addressed, and the most important one is the prevailing occurrence of faults. Considering fault rate projections as high as 20% that is much higher than those of CMOS, it is fair to expect sophisticated fault-tolerance methods. The focus of this survey article is the assessment and evaluation of these methods and related algorithms applied in logic mapping and configuration processes. As a start, we concisely explain reconfigurable nano-crossbar arrays with their fault characteristics and models. Following that, we demonstrate configuration techniques of the arrays in the presence of permanent faults and elaborate on two main fault-tolerance methodologies, namely defect-unaware and defect-aware approaches, with a short review on advantages and disadvantages. For both methodologies, we present detailed experimental results of related algorithms regarding their strengths and weaknesses with a comprehensive yield, success rate and runtime analysis. Next, we overview fault-tolerance approaches for transient faults. As a conclusion, we overview the proposed algorithms with future directions and upcoming challenges.