MXenes are emerging rapidly as a new family of multifunctional nanomaterials with prospective applications rivaling that of graphenes. Herein, a timely account of the design and performance evaluation of MXene-based membranes is provided. First, the preparation and physicochemical characteristics of MXenes are outlined, with a focus on exfoliation, dispersion stability, and processability, which are crucial factors for membrane fabrication. Then, different formats of MXene-based membranes in the literature are introduced, comprising pristine or intercalated nanolaminates and polymer-based nanocomposites. Next, the major membrane processes so far pursued by MXenes are evaluated, covering gas separation, wastewater treatment, desalination, and organic solvent purification. The potential utility of MXenes in phase inversion and interfacial polymerization, as well as layer-by-layer assembly for the preparation of nanocomposite membranes, is also critically discussed. Looking forward, exploiting the high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity of certain MXenes is put into perspective for niche applications that are not easily achievable by other nanomaterials. Furthermore, the benefits of simulation/modeling approaches for designing MXene-based membranes are exemplified. Overall, critical insights are provided for materials science and membrane communities to navigate better while exploring the potential of MXenes for developing advanced separation membranes.