Characterisation of wave storms events and their long-term variability off the key ports and shipping routes in the Black Sea


Ocean Engineering, vol.297, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 297
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2024.116893
  • Journal Name: Ocean Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, ICONDA Bibliographic, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Black sea, Storm duration, Storm power index, Wave storm directionality, Wave storm events, Wave storm variability
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Wave storms are often responsible for coastal damages, disrupt maritime activities and harbours' operability, and present a risk to human safety. Furthermore, linked to the projected scenario of sea level rising due to climate changes, coastal regions may gain in their vulnerability against wave storms. Understanding the frequency, intensity, and further characteristics of wave storm events is crucial for effective risk management, optimal design and reinforcing of coastal infrastructure, ensuring the safety of maritime operations and increasing community awareness. Thus, this paper presents a long-term characterisation of wave storm events that occurred in the Black Sea between 1979 and 2020. The study is focusing on 18 strategic locations of significant marine activities. The wave storm events at each location were classified based on their intensity. Thus, the inter-annual trend and variability in wave storm intensity, duration and direction were determined. The results showed that Turkish harbours and the Novorossiysk and Sevastopol harbours are the most exposed to catastrophic storm events. Those catastrophic storms are mainly occurring from two different directions. Furthermore, a significant increasing trend in maximum storm wave height was observed at Inebolu and off the Istanbul strait.