International Civil Engineering Architecture Conference, Trabzon, Turkey, 17 - 20 April 2019, pp.245-257
Cement production is energy-intensive and CO2-emitting process. The process produces air pollutants in the
form of various oxides, particulates and heavy metals which are detrimental to habitat. Thus, the quest for energy
efficient alternative materials has been continued around the world. Portland-pozzolan cement (CEM IV),
limestone-calcined clay-cement (LC3) are the alternative cements based on reducing the amount of clinker by
blending it with pozzolans and as well as limestone which can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 30%.
As a cement-free binder, geopolymer may be regarded as another alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The
term “geopolymer” was first coined by Davidovits in 1970s. It is an amorphous three dimensional covalent
bonded aluminosilicate binder formed by alkaline activation of aluminosilicate solid materials. Because the
limestone is not used in the mixture, geopolymers are more energy-efficient alternative than their counterparts.
Geopolymer cement has 70-90% lower embodied greenhouse gas intensity than an equivalent amount of
ordinary Portland cement. Hence, in the study recent research done on geopolymer binders; their practical
applications in architecture; comparative material properties according to expected performance requirements;
available standards on geopolymers are scrutinized and probable assumptions are made on its potential use as an
alternative for cement in the future. Research results reveal that geopolymer binder does have the potential to be
extensively used in architecture.