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International Civil Engineering Architecture Conference, Trabzon, Turkey, 17 - 20 April 2019, pp.245-257

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Trabzon
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.245-257
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Cement production is energy-intensive and CO2-emitting process. The process produces air pollutants in the

form of various oxides, particulates and heavy metals which are detrimental to habitat. Thus, the quest for energy

efficient alternative materials has been continued around the world. Portland-pozzolan cement (CEM IV),

limestone-calcined clay-cement (LC3) are the alternative cements based on reducing the amount of clinker by

blending it with pozzolans and as well as limestone which can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 30%.

As a cement-free binder, geopolymer may be regarded as another alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The

term “geopolymer” was first coined by Davidovits in 1970s. It is an amorphous three dimensional covalent

bonded aluminosilicate binder formed by alkaline activation of aluminosilicate solid materials. Because the

limestone is not used in the mixture, geopolymers are more energy-efficient alternative than their counterparts.

Geopolymer cement has 70-90% lower embodied greenhouse gas intensity than an equivalent amount of

ordinary Portland cement. Hence, in the study recent research done on geopolymer binders; their practical

applications in architecture; comparative material properties according to expected performance requirements;

available standards on geopolymers are scrutinized and probable assumptions are made on its potential use as an

alternative for cement in the future. Research results reveal that geopolymer binder does have the potential to be

extensively used in architecture.