Analytical relationships for designing multiple outlets pipelines

Yildirim G.

JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, vol.133, no.2, pp.140-154, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


In this paper an analytical procedure taking into account the nonuniform outflow profile for hydraulic analysis and design of multiple outlets pipelines, is presented. Energy relations are improved based on the average friction drop approach with a simple exponential function, to express the nonuniform outflow concept. To determine friction head losses, the Darcy-Weisbach formula is used here; and the kinetic head change is considered whereas minor head losses are neglected. Several mathematical relationships are also derived for computing extreme pressure heads and their locations of occurrence along the pipeline. The presented method also provides specific lengths of the segments in which the different flow regimes occur along its length. This method simulates pressure and outflow profiles along trickle and sprinkler irrigation laterals and manifolds, as well as gated pipes. The presented technique was applied to several computational examples to clarify its precision for trickle and sprinkler lateral design and the analytical results were compared with those obtained using the numerical step-by-step method. The comparison test for the various design combinations indicated that, the proposed method is found to be sufficiently accurate in all design cases for both trickle and sprinkler lateral design. The analytical development is simple, direct, and easily adaptable to solve hydraulic design problems of various types of single-diameter mutiple-outlet pipelines in different flow regimes and uniform line slope cases. It is preferred to the numerical techniques which need large amounts of execution time and complex computer operations.