in: The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants, Maulin Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Kavit Mehta, Editor, Elsevier Science, Oxford/Amsterdam , Amsterdam, pp.523-550, 2021
Water is one of the most important element of life and the demand for this indispensable element is increasing dramatically due to the large global population growth. On the other hand, water quality became a major issue as a result of the extensive deterioration by enormous production of wastewater, inadequate treatment before disposal to water bodies and occurrence of new pollutants group known as pollutants of emerging concerns. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are part of the newly introduced pollutants that exists in wastewater streams from households and industries. PPCPs are defined as products that used by humans for health issues or cosmetics reasons, also they could be used to improve growth and health of livestock. PPCPs might be present in water and wastewater streams in levels of ppb or ppt. Despite that PPCPs is believed to have adverse effects on humans’ health and aquatic environment, studies addressing these effects are limited. In the last three decades, researches and authorities focused their efforts on studies related to source, occurrence and removal of PPCPs in water and wastewater streams. Up to date, most of water and wastewater treatment plants worldwide are not designed to handle this group of pollutants owing that to the absence of clear regulation stating the permissible levels of these pollutants. Nevertheless, attempts had been made to understand the fate and possible removal of PPCP in conventional wastewater treatment plants. While other group of studies concentrated on the nonconventional methods that could be employed to remove and alleviate the presence of PPCPs from water and wastewater streams.