Minerals, vol.13, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Gold-sulfide mineralization in the Abu Zawal (Fatira) mine area, North Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to porphyritic felsite dikes and elongate silicification zones in granitic rocks. These felsite dikes and the host granitic rocks exhibit major and trace element geochemical features typical of calc-alkaline and metaluminous I-type granites, likely originated in a late-orogenic setting. Their geochemical characteristics along with their fractionated LREE relative to HREE patterns imply either formation in a subduction-related environment or generation from subduction-modified source materials. Partial melting of subduction-metasomatized lower crustal rocks during extension following the lithospheric thickening may account for the production of such fertile, high Sr/Y and La/Yb magmas. In the Abu Zawal (Fatira) area, NE-trending altered felsite dikes, hydrothermal breccias, quartz enclaves, and wall-rock replacements are characterized by disseminations of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and rare gold. Alteration mineralogy, dominated by sericite, drusy quartz, kaolinite, calcite, and specular hematite, combined with the available fluid inclusion data suggests moderate to low temperature and near neutral pH conditions. The geochemical data of the altered wallrocks and mass balance calculations indicate significant mass losses in the altered rocks consistent with fluid/wallrock ratios higher than unity and near neutral pH conditions. Considering that the silica-rich host rocks, hydrothermal alteration, and sulfide-bearing hydrothermal quartz breccia in Fatira mine area were intuitively related to sulfur-saturated, oxidized felsic magmatism and associated hydrothermal systems, they are most likely linked to the post-subduction felsite porphyries (post-Hammamat felsites ~ 607 Ma), or pertaining to the late phases of the subaerial high-K calc-alkaline volcanics (Dokhan Volcanics ≤ 620 Ma).