in: Microbial Biofilms: Current Research and Practical Implications, Arindam Mitra, Editor, Caister Academic Press, Poole, pp.1-74, 2020
In nature, majority of bacteria live together in large complex sessile communities termed as biofilms. Within biofilm community, compared with their planktonic state, the physiological behavior of biofilm members is deeply altered, leading to gaining resistance to various environmental stresses, such as desiccation, antimicrobial agents and host immune response. As final stage of biofilm maturation, biofilm dispersal is also accepted as a critical step in bacterial lifestyle allowing dissemination of bacteria from the original site of infection in the host or the environment and increasing virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Biofilm formation and dispersal is under the control of complex regulatory mechanism that involves the coordination of various signaling messengers and molecular effectors. In this chapter, we review and summarize recent findings in the factors and regulatory pathways controlling the biofilm formation and dispersal in a range of Gram-positive bacteria, including some members of Bacillus and Staphylococcus aureus.