Inelastic displacement ratios (IDRs) of nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI) systems located at sites with cohesive soils are investigated in this study. To capture the effects of inelastic cyclic behavior of the supporting soil, the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) model is used. The superstructure is modeled using an inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system model. Nonlinear SSI systems representing various combinations of unconfined compressive strengths and shear wave velocities are considered in the analysis. A set of strong ground motions recorded at sites with soft to stiff soils is used for considering the record-to-record variability of IDRs. It is observed that IDRs for nonlinear SSI systems are sensitive to the strength and the stiffness properties of both the soil and the structure. For the case of SSI systems on the top of cohesive soils, the compressive strength of the soil has a significant impact on the IDRs, which cannot be captured by considering only the shear wave velocity of the soil. Based on the results of nonlinear time-history analysis, a new equation is proposed for estimating the mean and the dispersion of IDRs of SSI systems depending on the characteristic properties of the supporting soil, dimensions of the foundation, and properties of the superstructure. A probabilistic framework is presented for the performance-based seismic design of SSI systems located at sites with cohesive soils.