Comparison of thresholding methods for shoreline extraction from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 imagery: Extreme Lake Salda, track of Mars on Earth


Karaman M.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol.298, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 298
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113481
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, Index Islamicus, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Lake Salda, NDWI, mNDWI, Thresholding, Sentinel-2, Landsat-8, DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX, SOUTHWESTERN TURKEY, BODY DETECTION, INLAND, CLASSIFICATION, DELINEATION, ENTROPY, PERFORMANCE, ALGORITHM, COASTAL
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Lake Salda's extreme environment is geologically similar to Jezero Crater paleolake on Mars due to the formation of stromatolites and its extremely alkaline and cold water. It is critical to accurately determine the shoreline in the littoral zone where stromatolite formation occurs, in alkaline clean lakes like Salda, which contain traces of life on Mars, and in monitoring the change that occurs with climate and anthropogenic effect. The performance of global automatic thresholding algorithms on shoreline determination from NDWI and mNDWI water indices is compared in this study using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images atmospherically corrected by different algorithms. Satellite images data acquired on August 12, 2020 for Sentinel-2 and August 11, 2020 for Landsat-8 on Lake Salda were used to determining the shoreline. The shoreline data measured in situ concurrently with the Sentinel-2 satellite acquisition was used as reference data. In the accuracy analysis, ground control points created inside and outside the lake at a distance of 1 pixel and 0.5 pixel to the reference shoreline for each satellite image were used. The performance of the optimal threshold values determined by each thresholding algorithm in the water index images was assessed using Kappa coefficient, Overall Accuracy (OA), %OA of Inside (%OA(inside)) and %OA of Outside (%OA(outside)) statistics metrics. The optimal threshold values vary depending on the image and the atmospheric correction algorithm applied to the image. The NDWI index produces more accurate results in both Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellite images. While atmospheric correction algorithms do not affect the results in Landsat-8 images, the Sen2Cor algorithm outperforms iCOR in Sentinel-2 images. For thresholding algorithms to be used in different water index and satellite images, Intermode, Isodata, IJ_Isodata, Minimum and Otsu algorithms in Landsat-8_LaSRC_NDWI and Landsat-8_iCOR_NDWI images, and Intermode, Minimum and Huang algorithms in Sentinel-2_Sen2Cor_NDWI images produce the best results. Because the Minimum algorithm causes significant gaps in the lake surface, the Huang and Intermode algorithms should be used for Sentinel-2_Sen2Cor_NDWI images. The 0 (zero) threshold value in the water indices images has a high accuracy only in the NDWI water indices generated from the Landsat-8 image.