Effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a dispersant agent of reduced graphene oxide on the properties of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites

Kaftelen-Odabaşı H., Odabaşı A., Caballero-Briones F., Arvizu-Rodriguez L. E., Özdemir M., Baydoğan M.

Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol.42, no.19-20, pp.1039-1053, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 19-20
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/07316844221145560
  • Journal Name: Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1039-1053
  • Keywords: Reduced graphene oxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, carbon fiber composites, mechanical properties, glass transition, electrical properties
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© The Author(s) 2022.The electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have a close dependence on the use of modifiers like polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), as well as on the processing techniques to disperse functional charges such as graphene-related materials into the epoxy base. In the present work, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), prepared by a natural antioxidant agent, astaxanthin, was used as a filler material in the epoxy matrix of the carbon fiber composites. The astaxanthin reduction leads to an increase in the sp2 ordering in RGO; some residual epoxy and C-O groups that enhance the interaction with the epoxy matrix remain after reduction. The effects of RGO and PVP-modified RGO (PVP-RGO) fillers with different contents (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15% wt.) on the electrical conductivity, bending properties, and dynamic mechanical properties of CFRP were investigated. The incorporation of 0.15 wt.% RGO with and without PVP-modification, leads to through-the-thickness (Z-direction testing) conductivity values 7.4 and 9.6 times higher than those of the neat composite, respectively. The conductivity tests indicate that the RGO/epoxy composite behaves as a continuous conductor due to the formation of agglomerates of RGO within the matrix, while at the added contents of the PVP-RGO filler, the composite is below the percolation threshold, then conducting by electron tunneling, due to a better dispersion of the PVP-RGO filler within the epoxy matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows that the glass transition temperature is indicative of the interactions among the filler, the epoxy matrix, and the carbon fiber, that is, the PVP-RGO filler increases the chain mobility due to its higher dispersion in the matrix. While Tg of the neat epoxy/CFRP composite is 92.5°C, a minimum Tg of 88.5°C was achieved with a 0.10 % wt. PVP-RGO filler contents, and a maximum Tg of 94.5°C with a 0.15 % wt. of RGO filler amount. For constant filler content (0.15 wt.%), CFRP composite containing RGO and PVP-modified RGO exhibited 9.73% and 13.87% increase in flexural strength values, respectively, compared to the neat composite. The bending test revealed that PVP modification to RGO is beneficial to improve flexural strength of CFRP composites.