Photogrammetric model optimization in digitalization of architectural heritage: Yedikule fortress

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Sancak N., Uzun F., Turhan K., Saraoǧlu Yumni H., Özer D.

29th CIPA Symposium on Documenting, Understanding, Preserving Cultural Heritage. Humanities and Digital Technologies for Shaping the Future, Florence, Italy, 25 - 30 June 2023, vol.48, pp.1403-1410 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 48
  • Doi Number: 10.5194/isprs-archives-xlviii-m-2-2023-1403-2023
  • City: Florence
  • Country: Italy
  • Page Numbers: pp.1403-1410
  • Keywords: Digital Heritage, Mixed Reality, Optimization, Photogrammetry, Serious Gaming, Yedikule Fortress
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The idea of "digitalization of architectural heritage"has recently gained prominence to represent architectural and historical assets. With all these potentials, this study aims to create optimized models that can be used in serious gaming environments by presenting a method of photogrammetry. As a case study, Yedikule Fortress and its surroundings, which have a multi-layered structure that includes many cultural aspects such as Byzantine, Ottoman, and Republican periods in the historical process, have been studied within the scope of digitizing the architectural heritage to create an optimized model for gaming environments. The study was methodologically constructed in three phases: Photogrammetry, polygon modeling, and low poly/high poly baking process. The fortress and its surroundings are modeled using a high-detail point cloud and a high-poly mesh using aerial photogrammetry. The high-poly model was taken as a reference and transferred into a low-poly model as a mesh map, texture, and light characteristics. This allowed the high poly model to operate more efficiently and effectively in game engines. As a result, the study created a detailed and optimized model for the game engines to produce serious games specific to light and texture data, to be used on devices that support mixed reality (MR) technologies.