In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of microwave-assisted alkaline leaching on the treatment of electric arc furnace dusts to recover zinc and lead. Microwave treatment is a new innovative technology in waste treatment and now is an attractive advanced inter-disciplinary field and also environmental friendly. The highest zinc extraction, 50.3% in 60 minutes using 5 M NaOH at 750 W and L:S ratio 20, and lead extraction up to 92.84% was achieved in these same conditions but in 30 minutes. Compared with conventional leaching, the top extraction rate using MW-assisted leaching was higher by 16% (Zn) and 26% (Pb). Zinc presents in the flue dust in the form of franklinite (ZnFe2O4), its leaching in sodium hydroxide does not occur under the examined conditions, because it is enclosed in a matrix of iron.