Sedimentary earthquake records in the Izmit Gulf, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

Cagatay M. N., EREL L., BELLUCCI L. G., POLONIA A., GASPERINI L., Eriş K. K., ...More

SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY, vol.282, pp.347-359, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 282
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.10.001
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.347-359
  • Keywords: Turbidite, Homogenite, Earthquake records, Sea of Marmara, Izmit Gulf, AUGUST 17, PORE-WATER, FAULT, BAY, SEISMICITY, TURBIDITES, DIAGENESIS, OXIDATION, TSUNAMI, GEOCHEMISTRY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Sedimentary earthquake records of the last 2400 a, including that of the devastating 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake (Mw = 7.4), were studied in cores from the 210 m-deep central Karamursel Basin of the Izmit Gulf in the eastern Sea of Marmara, using laser grain-size, physical properties, stable O and C isotopes and XRF Core Scanner analyses, and dated by radionuclide and radiocarbon methods. The earthquake records are represented by turbidite-homogenite mass-flow units (THU) that commonly contain a basal coarse layer, a middle laminated silt layer and an overlying homogeneous mud layer. The coarse basal part has a sharp and sometimes scoured lower boundary, and includes multiple coarse (sand/silt) layers or laminae showing normal size grading. Multiple coarse layers and occasional bi-directional cross-bedding suggest deposition from a bed-load during water column oscillations, or seiche effect. The grain-size characteristics of the overlaying laminated silt and the homogeneous mud units indicate deposition from weak oscillating currents and homogeneous suspension, respectively. High Mn value just below the base of THUs suggests diagenetic enrichment at oxic/anoxic redox boundary before the mass-flow event. Sharp decrease in Mn with very low values within the THUs suggests transient redox conditions following the mass-flow. Variable geochemical compositions of the basal coarse layers indicate different sediment sources for different THUs. Eight sedimentary earthquake records observed in the last 2400 a in the Izmit Gulf can be confidently correlated with the historical earthquakes of 1999, 1509 AD (Ms = 7.2), 1296 AD (I = VII), 865 AD (I = VIII), 740 AD (I = VIII), 268 AD (I = VIII), 358 AD (I = IX), and 427 BC. This gives an earthquake recurrence time of ca. 300 a, with the interval between consecutive events ranging from 90 to 695 a. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.