Optimization of electrochromic performance of WO3−x films grown by RF sputtering on gallium-doped zinc oxide

Nuhoğlu D., Tuna Ö., Zayim E.

Materials Letters, vol.362, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 362
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.matlet.2024.136132
  • Journal Name: Materials Letters
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Electrochromic, GZO, Sputtering, Thin films, Tungsten oxide
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The present paper investigates the sputtered tungsten oxide thin films on gallium-doped zinc oxide-coated glass substrates concerning electrochromic behavior since the most promising candidate of smart glass in the future. Concordantly, each of the deposition parameters, including sputter power, total pressure, and O2/Ar + O2 gas ratio in the plasma, were examined in terms of electrochromic applications to enable to use of these values to be brought to large scale in commercial applications. As a result of comprehensive and systematic optimization studies, the optical modulation values were reached from 63.1 % to 70.8 % and the time needed for coloration and bleaching was observed as 7 and 5 s with final deposition values as 45 W power, 10 mTorr pressure, and 25 % O2 ratio. Additionally, whilst durability is still a problem in electrochromic coatings, reasonable durability cycling was achieved after 900 switching without encapsulation.