Energy efficiency is a key component of urban sustainability. In recent decades, energy efficiency has become a hot topic in both academic and policy circles and has gained a strong global commitment by the world leaders that have reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic objectives. Today, enhancing energy efficiency represents one of the most important opportunities for countries to expand economic growth and job creation. Energy efficiency of communities can be defined as a ratio between an input of energy consumption or emissions, and an output of servicees, such as number of inhabitants and jobs or floor square meters. In general, energy efficiency refers to using less energy to produce the same amount of services or useful output. It is widely assumed that over the coming decades, increased energy efficiency will help the world meet its energy needs and reduce carbon emissions. The aim of this paper is to measure urban energy efficiency and performance of Turkish cities. Using data and information gathered from Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT), Turkish State Meteorological Service and The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources and deploying the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the paper measures energy efficiency of 81 provinces, ranks them by their performance and maps out the patterns of energy use and efficiency in Turkey. The results of the Data Envelopment Analysis highlight the critical factors in energy efficiency performances of Turkish cities.